非池中藝術網

關渡美術館

【模造風景】Scenery in Mock-up

  • 展期

    日期:2021-03-12 ~ 2021-06-20

  • 地點

    台北市北投區學園路1號

  • 參展藝術家

    陳郁文、蔡宗勳、陳建榮、中村ケンゴ、楊泳梁

  • 策展人|
    孫睦怡
    參展藝術家|
    陳郁文(台灣)
    蔡宗勳(台灣)
    陳建榮(台灣)
    中村ケンゴ(日本)
    楊泳梁(中國)
    走入市井,舉目所及的景象是否熟悉?或者甚是陌生?在路邊搭棚小店與深夜捷運站裡,在快速道路與台北盆地周邊奔馳之下的我們,身處寂寞的公共空間當中感受到的個人情感可能獲得稀釋,從而發現一種獨特的群體感懷。
    聚落,尤其是城市,一方面是人類作用於自然環境最深刻、最集中的區域;另一方面也是自然對人類社會回饋最強的所在。聚落是人類適應、利用自然的產物,同時也作為人類生活和生產的場所。它的形式與規模,既要與周圍的自然環境相適應,也要有利於生產和生活。聚落的外部形態、組合類型無不深深打上了當地社會、經濟與地理環境的烙印。
    「模造」作為一種人造物操作過程的簡化替代性表徵,用以強調該物件或過程中的某項重要部分或功能。此種模造通常具有可拆解或操弄的部分,讓使用者得以配合所需條件或分析目的進行拆解或操作,相對於「模型」注重外觀的相似,以及大小比例的真確,「模造」則更注重功能上的模擬,而不刻意追求外形的真實性。
    「風景」則指稱可見的地表景色,包括地貌特徵、動植物、自然現象,如閃電、氣候現象,以及人類的活動,如建築物、人造景觀等等。而風景不只是風景,風景根源於人類,「人」的視角讓風景成為存在。於此,風景不僅僅是一片美麗景緻,在文化脈絡上另有其「意味」——沒有意味,風景將不再是風景,只是一堆亂石雜草。簡言之,只有人跡所至之處才可謂之風景,風景的概念與表達則蘊藏著文化的意涵,並典型地反映了人與其所處環境的深刻人文關係。
    論及人造物的集合於風景間的存在總難脫離討論「建築」,當我們由建築樣式入手,會發現希臘羅馬乃至文藝復興引導的古典建築樣式,壟斷了人們對建築景觀樣貌的理解與注意,無所謂的原創性,忠於標準規範才是重點,規律重複才是正規做法,對於建築樣式的共識成為景觀美感的基礎。直至進入十九世紀末,汲汲營營於建築景觀美感共識的追求,被崇尚科學標準的「工程師」出現所取代,重視功能的觀點讓當時的人們於「未來」充滿希望。
    由工程師觀點主導的現代主義理念,聲稱為建築美學的無解之爭找到了終極答案:屋宇的重點不在美觀,而是能夠發揮其應有的功能。這看似一錘定音的轉向,實際上也只是另一種價值觀進入並取而代之的過程,現代主義派的建築師(或稱工程師)和先前所有建築師無所不同,都希望其建築能夠傳達某些特定訊息,只是現代主義一派所要傳達的不再是過往時代的審美觀,更不是中古世紀或是希臘羅馬的生活態度,他們希望透過建築傳達的是當下對於「未來理想」——包括科技、速度、民主與科學的想像。
    從本次展出作品藝術家陳建榮的《Landscape 129》開始,其宛如現代建築主義大師勒・柯比意(Le Corbusier,1887-1965)建築圖紙的翻轉,將立體建物平面化的意圖,配合表面部分的模糊塗銷,表現藝術家將理想建築與日常對接的意識懸空,成為進入《模造風景》的起手式。中村ケンゴ則以幾何抽象藝術先驅皮特・蒙德里安(Piet Mondrian,1872-1944)的經典紅、黃、藍、黑分割色塊勾勒東京單人公寓的空間平面圖,帶來經典視覺經驗下的當代空間語彙。楊泳梁的數位山水發展以具體的城市場景與人造物機具所拍攝的圖像,經後製拼接臨摹中國宋代山水景貌,顯像古代車水馬龍於當代流動的時空錯置。再回到陳建榮的《Landscape》系列,雙拼的空間透視作品,以傳統的繪畫技法引領視角流淌,顛倒的空間感受迷惑了視覺的慣性,於表達建築構成幾何秩序的同時,也讓人為圖像的秩序重整,回頭詰問空間景象於形式與結構的關係。而蔡宗勳的錄像則以常民生活中熟悉的宣傳手法引導思考,當我們追求某種東西並為其中企圖所誘引,使其更偏好於某種目標或觀點,這種宣傳形式帶給我們的是價值觀的清洗還是美好生活的另類想像。最終,陳郁文的《天際棲息》則以白日與黑夜之下的頂樓加蓋地景,探尋建築形式於社會結構下的意識提點。
    《模造風景》企圖表現人與自然的當代美學、文化、社會的詮釋與體驗。風景的藝術呈現與詮釋是與時俱進的,只要有「人」的地方就需要有空間與位置去容納、生產與再生產(模造)其意義。本展在人造自然、建築語彙、結構解離、後製加工等命題中,思考人文/人造風景的模造現實,以此挑動觀者的認知視覺以及思辨邏輯。
    主辦單位|國立臺北藝術大學關渡美術館
    指導單位|教育部、文化部
    協辦單位|也趣藝廊、白石畫廊
    Intro:
    Curator |
    Linda, Mu-Yi SUN
    Artists |
    Sera Chen (Taiwan)
    Tsai Tsung-Hsun (Taiwan)
    Chen Chien-Jung (Taiwan)
    Kengo Nakamura (Japan)
    Yang Yongliang (China)
    Walking in the city streets, do you find the scenes familiar, or strange, to your eyes? In the shabby vendors by the road, the MRT stations late at night, or the bustling expressways and traffic around the Taipei Basin, the private emotions we feel as we are situated in the public spaces of loneliness may be diluted, followed by a unique discovery of collective sentiment.
    A settlement, especially a city, is the most profound and concentrated area of human activity in the natural environment. It is also the venue where nature presents the strongest feedbacks to human society. A settlement is a product of the human race adapting and exploiting nature. It is also a place for humans to live and produce. Its form and scale are not just adaptive to the natural environment in proximity but also beneficial to production and living. Either the exterior form or assembling type of a settlement is distinctively marked by the social, economic, and geographical environments in the area.
    As a simplified, alternative representation for the operational process of artifact, a “mock-up” is intended to shed light on certain parts or functions of importance in the object or process. Such mock-up often comes with parts that can be disassembled or manipulated, so that a user may disassemble or operate in line with the criteria required or purpose of analysis. Compared to a “model” that emphasizes exterior resemblance and accuracy of proportion and size, a “mock-up” stresses more on simulation of function instead of the pursuit of faithfulness on the outside.
    “Scenery” refers to the visible landscape, including the terrains, fauna and flora, the natural phenomena like lightning and climates, as well as the human activities such as architecture and artificial landscapes. Nevertheless, a scenery is more than a scenery itself. A scenery is rooted in humanity. It is in the perspective of “human” that a scenery comes into being. Hence, a scenery not just is a gorgeous view, but also carries additional “meaning” in the cultural context. Without meaning, a scenery no longer presents a scenery, but merely a pile of rocks and weeds. In a nutshell, only places with human trace can be sceneries. The concept and expression of scenery are rich with cultural implications, quintessentially reflecting the profound cultural tie between mankind and their surrounding environment.
    When it comes to the collective existence of artifacts in sceneries, it is difficult to overlook the discussion of “architecture”. As we approach from the styles of architecture, we will find the classical architectural styles prevalent in ancient Greece and Rome and even the Renaissance dominating people’s appreciation and attention to the appearances of architecture. There is no originality, but loyalty to standards and paradigms. Rhythmic repetition is the orthodox approach, whereas the consensus on architectural styles becomes the foundation for landscape aesthetics. Not until the end of the 19th century was the obsession in the pursuit of a consensus in architectural aesthetics replaced by the emergence of “engineers” advocating scientific standards.
    The function-based stance filled the people with hopes for “the future”. The notion of modernism dominated by engineer’s perspective claimed to have found the ultimate solution to the unresolved quarrel over architectural aesthetics – the point of architecture is not for beauty, but for the purposes it serves. The seemingly decisive turn is in fact nothing but the introduction of a value to replace the predecessor. The architects (or engineers) of modernism stand the same with those architects before them, seeking to communicate certain messages with their architecture. Nonetheless, what the modernists aim to communicate no longer is the aesthetics in the old days, nor is it the attitude toward life in the Middle Age or ancient Rome or Greece. What they attempt to communicate via architecture is the “visions for the future” of the times, including the imaginations for technology, speed, democracy, and science.
    It starts with Landscape 129 by Chen Chien-Jung in this exhibition, the seemingly flipping of the architecture schematics of Le Corbusier (1887-1965), a maestro of modern architecture. Aiming at flatting the 3D architecture, along with partial blurring on the surface, the expressionist suspends the consciousness of bridging the ideal architecture with everyday life, serving as the initiation for Scenery in Mock-up. Kengo Nakamura employs the classic squares of color red, yellow, blue, and black of Piet Mondrian (1872-1944) to illustrate the floor plan of studio apartment in Tokyo, introducing the contemporary spatial lexicon in the classical visual experiences. Yang Yongliang’s digital landscapes are developed on the basis of the recorded imageries of concrete urban scenes and manmade machineries. With post-editing and montage techniques, the mimicked scenes of landscape painting in the Sung Dynasty of China develop into the bustling traffic of the past, misplaced and flowing in modern times. As we revisit Chen Chien-Jung’s Landscape series, the paired works of spatial perspective steer the flow of viewing perspective with the traditional painting techniques, while the inverted sense of space baffles our visual inertia. Communicating the geometrical order of architectural building, it also reconfigures the order of artificial imageries and enquires the relationship of spatial scenery with form and structure in return. In addition, Tsai Tsung-Hsun’s videos facilitate our thinking via the promotional approaches familiar in the commoner’s life. Whereas we pursue certain things, lured by its attempt to bend our view in favor of specific goal or perspective, is it a cleansing of our value or an alternative imagination toward a good life such promotional approach aims to introduce to us? Finally, Sera Chen’s The Habitat on The Skyline utilizes the add-on landscape in day and night, searching for the awareness reminder of architectural form under the social fabric.
    Scenery in Mock-up endeavors to present interpretations and experiences of the contemporary aesthetics, culture, and society of humanity and nature. The artistic presentation and interpretation of scenery progress with times. Where there is “human”, there is space and place to accommodate, produce, and reproduce (mock-up) its meaning. This exhibition ponders over the mock-up realities of cultural/artificial landscapes in the propositions of artificial nature, architectural lexicon, structural disassociation, and post-editing processing, so as to evoke viewer’s visual perception and reasoning logic.
    Gallery 402, KdMoFA
    Organizer | Kuandu Museum of Fine Arts, TNUA
    Supervisor | Ministry of Education, Ministry of Culture
    Co-organizer | AKI Gallery, Whitestone Gallery

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